The history of creative work is strewn with examples, from Van Gogh, who took enormous creative risks only redeemed posthumously , to gravitational astronomy pioneer Joe Weber , who died a tragic hero of science but opened up the brand new field that eventually furnished one of the most significant discoveries in the entire history of science. Such an opportunity arises in many fields which may at first show little promise, especially because at least at first society is not in the habit of recognizing them to be potentially creative.
From these prerequisites Bohm extrapolates the central orientation of the creative mind in any field:. The creative state of mind … is, first of all, one whose interest in what is being done is wholehearted and total, like that of a young child. With this spirit, it is always open to learning what is new, to perceiving new differences and new similarities, leading to new orders and structures, rather than always tending to impose familiar orders and structures in the field of what is seen.
This kind of action of the creative state of mind is impossible if one is limited by narrow and petty aims, such as security, furthering of personal ambition, glorification of the individual or the state… Although such motives may permit occasional flashes of penetrating insight, they evidently tend to hold the mind a prisoner of its old and familiar structure of thought and perception.
Indeed, merely to inquire into what is unknown must inevitably lead one into a situation in which all that is done may well constitute a threat to the successful achievement of those narrow and limited goals. A genuinely new and untried step may either fail altogether or else, even if it succeeds, lead to ideas that are not recognized until after one is dead.
Besides, such aims are not compatible with the harmony, beauty, and totality that is characteristic of real creation. Above all, Bohm argues, creativity demands the willingness to relinquish even our most dearly held ideas if they are contradicted by experiment and experience:. No really creative transformation can possibly be effected by human beings, either in nature or in society, unless they are in the creative state of mind that is generally sensitive to the differences that always exist between the observed fact and any preconceived ideas, however noble, beautiful, and magnificent they may seem to be.
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For as long as the individual cannot learn from what he does and sees, whenever such learning requires that he go outside the framework of his basic preconceptions, then his action will ultimately be directed by some idea that does not correspond to the fact as it is. Such action is worse than useless, and evidently cannot possibly give rise to a genuine solution of the problems of the individual and of society. If one is serious about being original and creative, it is necessary for him first to be original and creative about reactions that are making him mediocre and mechanical.
Then eventually the natural creative action of the mind may fully awaken, so that it will start to operate in a basically new order that is no longer determined mainly by the mechanical aspects of thought… Just as the health of the body demands that we breathe properly, so, whether we like it or not, the health of the mind requires that we be creative. But, of course, to awaken the creative state of mind is not at all easy.
On the contrary, it is one of the most difficult things that could possibly be attempted. Nevertheless, for the reasons that I have given, I feel that it is for each of us individually and for society as a whole the most important thing to be done in the circumstances in which humanity now finds itself. Further, Vandervert and Vandervert-Weathers believe that this repetitive "mental prototyping" or mental rehearsal involving the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex explains the success of the self-driven, individualized patterning of repetitions initiated by the teaching methods of the Khan Academy.
The model proposed by Vandervert has, however, received incisive critique from several authors. Creativity involves the forming of associative elements into new combinations that are useful or meet some requirement. Sleep aids this process. It is proposed that REM sleep adds creativity by allowing "neocortical structures to reorganize associative hierarchies, in which information from the hippocampus would be reinterpreted in relation to previous semantic representations or nodes. Some theories suggest that creativity may be particularly susceptible to affective influence.
As noted in voting behavior , the term "affect" in this context can refer to liking or disliking key aspects of the subject in question. This work largely follows from findings in psychology regarding the ways in which affective states are involved in human judgment and decision-making. According to Alice Isen , positive affect has three primary effects on cognitive activity:. Barbara Fredrickson in her broaden-and-build model suggests that positive emotions such as joy and love broaden a person's available repertoire of cognitions and actions, thus enhancing creativity.
According to these researchers, positive emotions increase the number of cognitive elements available for association attention scope and the number of elements that are relevant to the problem cognitive scope. Various meta-analyses, such as Baas et al. Consider an agent able to manipulate its environment and thus its own sensory inputs. The agent can use a black box optimization method such as reinforcement learning to learn through informed trial and error sequences of actions that maximize the expected sum of its future reward signals.
There are extrinsic reward signals for achieving externally given goals, such as finding food when hungry. But Schmidhuber's objective function to be maximized also includes an additional, intrinsic term to model "wow-effects. A wow-effect is formally defined as follows. As the agent is creating and predicting and encoding the continually growing history of actions and sensory inputs, it keeps improving the predictor or encoder, which can be implemented as an artificial neural network or some other machine learning device that can exploit regularities in the data to improve its performance over time.
The improvements can be measured precisely, by computing the difference in computational costs storage size, number of required synapses, errors, time needed to encode new observations before and after learning. This difference depends on the encoder's present subjective knowledge, which changes over time, but the theory formally takes this into account. The cost difference measures the strength of the present "wow-effect" due to sudden improvements in data compression or computational speed.
It becomes an intrinsic reward signal for the action selector. The objective function thus motivates the action optimizer to create action sequences causing more wow-effects. Irregular, random data or noise do not permit any wow-effects or learning progress, and thus are "boring" by nature providing no reward. Already known and predictable regularities also are boring.
Temporarily interesting are only the initially unknown, novel, regular patterns in both actions and observations. This motivates the agent to perform continual, open-ended, active, creative exploration. According to Schmidhuber, his objective function explains the activities of scientists, artists, and comedians.
Likewise, composers receive intrinsic reward for creating non-arbitrary melodies with unexpected but regular harmonies that permit wow-effects through data compression improvements. Similarly, a comedian gets intrinsic reward for "inventing a novel joke with an unexpected punch line , related to the beginning of the story in an initially unexpected but quickly learnable way that also allows for better compression of the perceived data. A study by psychologist J. Philippe Rushton found creativity to correlate with intelligence and psychoticism.
While divergent thinking was associated with bilateral activation of the prefrontal cortex , schizotypal individuals were found to have much greater activation of their right prefrontal cortex. In agreement with this hypothesis, ambidexterity is also associated with schizotypal and schizophrenic individuals.
Three recent studies by Mark Batey and Adrian Furnham have demonstrated the relationships between schizotypal   and hypomanic personality  and several different measures of creativity. Particularly strong links have been identified between creativity and mood disorders , particularly manic-depressive disorder a.
On Creativity by David Bohm
She also explores research that identifies mood disorders in such famous writers and artists as Ernest Hemingway who shot himself after electroconvulsive treatment , Virginia Woolf who drowned herself when she felt a depressive episode coming on , composer Robert Schumann who died in a mental institution , and even the famed visual artist Michelangelo.
A different case study suggested for Schumann a difference between bipolar disorder and "creative bipolarity". A study looking at , persons with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression, and their relatives, found overrepresentation in creative professions for those with bipolar disorder as well as for undiagnosed siblings of those with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. There was no overall overrepresentation, but overrepresentation for artistic occupations, among those diagnosed with schizophrenia.
There was no association for those with unipolar depression or their relatives. Another study involving more than one million people, conducted by Swedish researchers at the Karolinska Institute, reported a number of correlations between creative occupations and mental illnesses. Writers had a higher risk of anxiety and bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and substance abuse, and were almost twice as likely as the general population to kill themselves. Dancers and photographers were also more likely to have bipolar disorder. However, as a group, those in the creative professions were no more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than other people, although they were more likely to have a close relative with a disorder, including anorexia and, to some extent, autism, the Journal of Psychiatric Research reports.
According to psychologist Robert Epstein, PhD, creativity can be obstructed through stress.
Creativity can be expressed in a number of different forms, depending on unique people and environments. A number of different theorists have suggested models of the creative person. One model suggests that there are four "Creativity Profiles" that can help produce growth, innovation, speed, etc. Research by Dr Mark Batey of the Psychometrics at Work Research Group at Manchester Business School has suggested that the creative profile can be explained by four primary creativity traits with narrow facets within each.
This model was developed in a sample of working adults using the statistical techniques of Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis by Structural Equation Modelling. An important aspect of the creativity profiling approach is to account for the tension between predicting the creative profile of an individual, as characterised by the psychometric approach, and the evidence that team creativity is founded on diversity and difference. One characteristic of creative people, as measured by some psychologists, is what is called divergent production.
Divergent production is the ability of a person to generate a diverse assortment, yet an appropriate amount of responses to a given situation. Other researchers of creativity see the difference in creative people as a cognitive process of dedication to problem solving and developing expertise in the field of their creative expression. Hard working people study the work of people before them and within their current area, become experts in their fields, and then have the ability to add to and build upon previous information in innovative and creative ways.
Lecture On Creativity
In a study of projects by design students, students who had more knowledge on their subject on average had greater creativity within their projects. The aspect of motivation within a person's personality may predict creativity levels in the person. Motivation stems from two different sources, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
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Intrinsic motivation is an internal drive within a person to participate or invest as a result of personal interest, desires, hopes, goals, etc. Extrinsic motivation is a drive from outside of a person and might take the form of payment, rewards, fame, approval from others, etc. Although extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation can both increase creativity in certain cases, strictly extrinsic motivation often impedes creativity in people. From a personality-traits perspective, there are a number of traits that are associated with creativity in people.
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From an evolutionary perspective, creativity may be a result of the outcome of years of generating ideas. As ideas are continuously generated, the need to evolve produces a need for new ideas and developments. As a result, people have been creating and developing new, innovative, and creative ideas to build our progress as a society.
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In studying exceptionally creative people in history, some common traits in lifestyle and environment are often found. Creative people in history usually had supportive parents, but rigid and non-nurturing. Most had an interest in their field at an early age, and most had a highly supportive and skilled mentor in their field of interest. Often the field they chose was relatively uncharted, allowing for their creativity to be expressed more in a field with less previous information.